A good sound naturally comes from a good source. Even if the equipment of the system or the sound signal system is high-quality, if a voice comes from a bad source, it cannot deliver good sound. Audio equipment consists of many parts forming an audio system. However, an interesting point to consider is the source. It is not true that a music trainee who uses high-quality equipment will always produce good music. It is also not true that a charismatic singer or speaker who uses cheap microphone will improve the quality of the sound. This is because the quality of a sound depends on a voice receiver, which is called a ‘Source’. A microphone is an equipment that can convert natural sound energy, which is also known as ‘Acoustic’, to electric power.
The important point is using the right type of microphone because there are more than a single type of microphone. Different types of microphone are designed for different purposes. They may have different voice receiver directions, different acceptance frequencies, and different sound level enhancement.
Types of microphone
A microphone can be classified into six categories based on a material structure below.
1. A carbon mic is made from carbon powder. The quality is not good so, it is usually used in a telephone.
2. A crystal mic has a crystal as a vibration to generate an electric power. This equipment cannot resist temperature conditions and humidity. Its price is cheap.
3.A ceramic mic is similar to a crystal mic though it has more durability. It is often used in a vehicle.
4.A condenser mic has a condenser as a frequency maker to send a signal to the system. However, it needs power from a battery. It is supplementary for work. Moreover, it has high quality and is lightweight.
5. A dynamic mic uses a permanent magnetic and a moving coil to move in a magnetic field. Therefore, it generates an induction and an electric power in a cycle. Its quality is good, resistant and suitable for a public work.
6.A ribbon mic uses an aluminum light plate, which is thin like a ribbon, so it must stay between high power permanent magnetic. When the voice waves touched the aluminum plate, it will vibrate and produce electric power. Its price is expensive but it has a high quality and high sensitivity. It can receive all signal even breath or wind sound. Thus, it is perfect for use in a recording studio and radio room.
Techniques for using a microphone
1. The distance between a speaker and a microphone depends on the sensitivity of the signal receiver on each microphone categories though it is approximately around 6-12 inches. If the speaker has a distance less or more than that, it will make the lower quality voice, for instance, ‘hmm’ noise from breathing and wind noise from a mouth.
2. It is essential to protect wind noise from ambient and breathing noise from other people by using a sponge to cover over the microphone’s head.
3. When you test the microphone by saying ‘Hello, test’, you should set up the proper distance. Next, you continuously count 1 to 9 and end up with 0 for testing. You slowly repeat it. One round should take 10 seconds then start it repeatedly 3 times. The test purpose is for tuning volume and tone to the proper ambient and types of work.
Warning when using a microphone
1. Do not knock or blow a microphone for testing because it will damage a microphone.
2. Do not crash or drop a microphone, for instance, knocking it strongly into a table or dropping it to the floor. It will cause a severe damage, which cannot be fixed, so install or place it carefully and touch it smoothly.
3. Do not turn the head side of a microphone to the loudspeaker, place it near the loudspeaker, hold it near the wall that often reflects the voice, or turn up the volume too much. These will make a microphone feedback noise come from the loudspeaker.